Chemical characterization

rotundifoline 7-hydroxymitragynine mitragynine
Characterization of Kratom material 0.41 ± 0.024 mg/g sample 0.567 ± 0.04 mg/g sample 22.7 ± 3.3 mg/g sample




Data points represent the following samples (click to show/hide):

ID Subject of Study Study Name Name Type Overall Effect Enzymes Transporters Object Object Metabolite Precipitant
NPDI-FqB7Jg Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Kratom Metabolomics Kratom Metabolomics Experiment Metabolomics
NPDI-XuAtuQ Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Characterization of Kratom material Characterization of Kratom material Characterization of Material
NPDI-TjrSew Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Evaluation of In Vitro Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion (ADME) Properties of Mitragynine, 7-Hydroxymitragynine, and Mitraphylline 7-hyrdoxymitragynine P-gp Transport kinetics In Vitro Transporter Kinetics negative — No In Vitro Transport Activity
  • P-gp (ABCB1)
7-hydroxymitragynine
NPDI-mJ7zbw Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Evaluation of In Vitro Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion (ADME) Properties of Mitragynine, 7-Hydroxymitragynine, and Mitraphylline Inhibition of P-gp by Mitragynine In Vitro Transporter Inhibition positive — In Vitro Transporter Inhibition
  • P-gp (ABCB1)
calcein-am mitragynine
NPDI-iGAFkQ Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Evaluation of In Vitro Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion (ADME) Properties of Mitragynine, 7-Hydroxymitragynine, and Mitraphylline 7-Hydroxymitragynine p-gp transport kinetics MDCK In Vitro Transporter Kinetics negative — No In Vitro Transport Activity
  • P-gp (ABCB1)
7-hydroxymitragynine
NPDI-2HCqSQ Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Evaluation of In Vitro Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion (ADME) Properties of Mitragynine, 7-Hydroxymitragynine, and Mitraphylline Mitraphylline p-gp transport kinetics MDCK In Vitro Transporter Kinetics positive — In Vitro Transport
  • P-gp (ABCB1)
mitraphylline
NPDI-yG9O9A Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Evaluation of In Vitro Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion (ADME) Properties of Mitragynine, 7-Hydroxymitragynine, and Mitraphylline Mitragynine p-gp transport kinetics MDCK In Vitro Transporter Kinetics negative — No In Vitro Transport Activity
  • P-gp (ABCB1)
mitragynine
NPDI-ruor3g Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Evaluation of In Vitro Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion (ADME) Properties of Mitragynine, 7-Hydroxymitragynine, and Mitraphylline Mitraphylline P-gp transport kinetics In Vitro Transporter Kinetics positive — In Vitro Transport
  • P-gp (ABCB1)
mitraphylline
NPDI-2VLnZA Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Evaluation of In Vitro Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion (ADME) Properties of Mitragynine, 7-Hydroxymitragynine, and Mitraphylline Mitragynine P-gp transport activity In Vitro Transporter Kinetics negative — No In Vitro Transport Activity
  • P-gp (ABCB1)
mitragynine
NPDI-MpwNXw Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Evaluation of the Effects of Mitragyna speciosa Alkaloid Extract on Cytochrome P450 Enzymes Using a High Throughput Assay Mitragynine inhibition of CYP1A2 In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition positive — In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition
  • CYP1A2
3-cyano-7-ethoxycoumarin 3-cyano-7-hydroxycoumarin mitragynine
NPDI-d5Gm3Q Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Evaluation of the Effects of Mitragyna speciosa Alkaloid Extract on Cytochrome P450 Enzymes Using a High Throughput Assay Mitragynine inhibition of CYP2C19 In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition positive — In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition
  • CYP2C19
3-cyano-7-ethoxycoumarin 3-cyano-7-hydroxycoumarin mitragynine
NPDI-payj8A Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Evaluation of the Effects of Mitragyna speciosa Alkaloid Extract on Cytochrome P450 Enzymes Using a High Throughput Assay Mitragynine inhibition of CYP2D6 In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition positive — In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition
  • CYP2D6
3-[2-(n,n-diethyl-n-methylammonium)ethyl]-7-methoxy-4-methylcoumarin 3-[2-(n,n-diethyl-n-methylammonium)ethyl]-7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin mitragynine
NPDI-TZxzig Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Evaluation of the Effects of Mitragyna speciosa Alkaloid Extract on Cytochrome P450 Enzymes Using a High Throughput Assay Mitragynine inhibition of CYP3A4 In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition positive — In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition
  • CYP3A4
7-benzyloxy-4-(trifluoromethyl)-coumarin 7-hydroxy-4-(trifluromethyl)-coumarin mitragynine
NPDI-E56YVg Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) P-glycoprotein interactions of novel psychoactive substances – Stimulation of ATP consumption and transport across Caco-2 monolayers Mitragynine Inhibition In Vitro Transporter Inhibition positive — In Vitro Transporter Inhibition
  • P-gp (ABCB1)
rhodamine 123 mitragynine
NPDI-_5ld1Q Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Evaluation of In Vitro Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion (ADME) Properties of Mitragynine, 7-Hydroxymitragynine, and Mitraphylline 7-Hydroxymitragynine P-gp Inhibition In Vitro Transporter Inhibition positive — In Vitro Transporter Inhibition
  • P-gp (ABCB1)
calcein-am 7-hydroxymitragynine
NPDI-v2Z25g Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Inhibitory effect of mitragynine on human cytochrome P450 enzyme activities POS. CONTROL: Inhibition of CYP2C9 by sulfaphenazole In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition positive — In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition
  • CYP2C9
6’deoxyluciferin (luciferin h) luciferin sulfaphenazole
NPDI-XeGihA Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Exploration of cytochrome P450 inhibition mediated drug-drug interaction potential of kratom alkaloids Weak Inhibition of Paynantheine for CYP2C8 In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition negative — In Vitro Enzyme Negligible Inhibition
  • CYP2C8
amodiaquine n-desethylamodiaquine paynantheine
NPDI-FnVAqw Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Evaluation of selected Malaysian medicinal plants on phase I drug metabolizing enzymes, CYP2C9, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 activities in vitro POS. CONTROL: Inhibition of CYP2D6 by quinidine In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition positive — In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition
  • CYP2D6
ethylene glycol ester of luciferin 6’methyl ether (luciferin me-ege) luciferin quinidine
NPDI-pMOhyQ Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Effects of mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine (the alkaloids of Mitragyna speciosa Korth) on 4-methylumbelliferone glucuronidation in rat and human liver microsomes and recombinant human uridine 5’- diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase isoforms Inhibition of UGT in human liver microsomes by buprenorphine In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition positive — In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition
  • UGT
4-methylumbelliferone 4-methylumbelliferone glucuronide buprenorphine
NPDI-Nl2Cww Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Effects of mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine (the alkaloids of Mitragyna speciosa Korth) on 4-methylumbelliferone glucuronidation in rat and human liver microsomes and recombinant human uridine 5’- diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase isoforms Negligible inhibition of UGT in human liver microsomes by mitragynine In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition negative — In Vitro Enzyme Negligible Inhibition
  • UGT
4-methylumbelliferone 4-methylumbelliferone glucuronide mitragynine
NPDI-ipamgg Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Effects of mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine (the alkaloids of Mitragyna speciosa Korth) on 4-methylumbelliferone glucuronidation in rat and human liver microsomes and recombinant human uridine 5’- diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase isoforms No inhibition of UGT in human liver microsomes by ketamine In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition negative — In Vitro Enzyme Negligible Inhibition
  • UGT
4-methylumbelliferone 4-methylumbelliferone glucuronide ketamine
NPDI-u96XKg Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Effects of mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine (the alkaloids of Mitragyna speciosa Korth) on 4-methylumbelliferone glucuronidation in rat and human liver microsomes and recombinant human uridine 5’- diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase isoforms Negligible inhibition of UGT in human liver microsomes by diclofenac In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition negative — In Vitro Enzyme Negligible Inhibition
  • UGT
4-methylumbelliferone 4-methylumbelliferone glucuronide diclofenac
NPDI-79TG7g Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Evaluation of selected Malaysian medicinal plants on phase I drug metabolizing enzymes, CYP2C9, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 activities in vitro POS. CONTROL: Inhibition of CYP3A4 by ketoconazole In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition positive — In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition
  • CYP3A4
luciferin 6’benzyl ether (luciferin-be) luciferin ketoconazole
NPDI-4do0FA Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Effects of mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine (the alkaloids of Mitragyna speciosa Korth) on 4-methylumbelliferone glucuronidation in rat and human liver microsomes and recombinant human uridine 5’- diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase isoforms Inhibition of UGT1A1 by 7-hydroxymitragynine In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition positive — In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition
  • UGT1A1
4-methylumbelliferone 4-methylumbelliferone glucuronide 7-hydroxymitragynine
NPDI-1tFkCA Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Inhibitory effect of mitragynine on human cytochrome P450 enzyme activities Inhibition of CYP2C9 by mitragynine In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition positive — In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition
  • CYP2C9
6’deoxyluciferin (luciferin h) luciferin mitragynine
NPDI-qMnZyA Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Exploration of cytochrome P450 inhibition mediated drug-drug interaction potential of kratom alkaloids Weak Inhibition of Corynantheidine for CYP3A4/5 In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition negative — In Vitro Enzyme Negligible Inhibition
  • CYP3A4
  • CYP3A5
testosterone 6beta-hydroxytestosterone corynantheidine
NPDI-5VhYlA Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Effects of mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine (the alkaloids of Mitragyna speciosa Korth) on 4-methylumbelliferone glucuronidation in rat and human liver microsomes and recombinant human uridine 5’- diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase isoforms Negligible inhibition of UGT1A1 by mitragynine In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition negative — In Vitro Enzyme Negligible Inhibition
  • UGT1A1
4-methylumbelliferone 4-methylumbelliferone glucuronide mitragynine
NPDI-Df2Xyw Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Evaluation of selected Malaysian medicinal plants on phase I drug metabolizing enzymes, CYP2C9, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 activities in vitro Negligible inhibition of CYP3A4 by M. speciosa methanolic extract In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition negative — In Vitro Enzyme Negligible Inhibition
  • CYP3A4
luciferin 6’benzyl ether (luciferin-be) luciferin methanolic extract of kratom
NPDI-gWxQZg Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Evaluation of selected Malaysian medicinal plants on phase I drug metabolizing enzymes, CYP2C9, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 activities in vitro Inhibition of CYP2D6 by M. speciosa methanolic extract In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition positive — In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition
  • CYP2D6
ethylene glycol ester of luciferin 6’methyl ether (luciferin me-ege) luciferin methanolic extract of kratom
NPDI-jkwBEg Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Evaluation of selected Malaysian medicinal plants on phase I drug metabolizing enzymes, CYP2C9, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 activities in vitro Inhibition of CYP2C9 by M. speciosa methanolic extract In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition negative — In Vitro Enzyme Negligible Inhibition
  • CYP2C9
6’deoxyluciferin (luciferin h) luciferin methanolic extract of kratom
NPDI-H6ZqbA Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Evaluation of selected Malaysian medicinal plants on phase I drug metabolizing enzymes, CYP2C9, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 activities in vitro POS. CONTROL: Inhibition of CYP2C9 by sulfaphenazole In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition positive — In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition
  • CYP2C9
6’deoxyluciferin (luciferin h) luciferin sulfaphenazole
NPDI-_PhwAA Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Inhibitory effect of mitragynine on human cytochrome P450 enzyme activities Inhibition of CYP2D6 by mitragynine In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition positive — In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition
  • CYP2D6
ethylene glycol ester of luciferin 6’methyl ether (luciferin me-ege) luciferin mitragynine
NPDI-9spGvg Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Effects of mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine (the alkaloids of Mitragyna speciosa Korth) on 4-methylumbelliferone glucuronidation in rat and human liver microsomes and recombinant human uridine 5’- diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase isoforms Negligible inhibition of UGT2B7 by mitragynine In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition negative — In Vitro Enzyme Negligible Inhibition
  • UGT2B7
4-methylumbelliferone 4-methylumbelliferone glucuronide mitragynine
NPDI-4_m2Gw Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Effects of mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine (the alkaloids of Mitragyna speciosa Korth) on 4-methylumbelliferone glucuronidation in rat and human liver microsomes and recombinant human uridine 5’- diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase isoforms Inhibition of UGT1A1 by diclofenac In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition positive — In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition
  • UGT1A1
4-methylumbelliferone 4-methylumbelliferone glucuronide diclofenac
NPDI-QQeDSQ Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Exploration of cytochrome P450 inhibition mediated drug-drug interaction potential of kratom alkaloids Inhibition of Speciogynine for CYP3A4/5 In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition positive — In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition
  • CYP3A4
  • CYP3A5
midazolam 1'-hydroxymidazolam speciogynine
NPDI-2seH4Q Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Exploration of cytochrome P450 inhibition mediated drug-drug interaction potential of kratom alkaloids Weak Inhibition of Speciociliatine for CYP3A4/5 In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition negative — In Vitro Enzyme Negligible Inhibition
  • CYP3A4
  • CYP3A5
testosterone 6beta-hydroxytestosterone speciociliatine
NPDI-d-iKog Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Inhibitory effect of mitragynine on human cytochrome P450 enzyme activities POS. CONTROL: Inhibition of CYP3A4 by ketoconazole In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition positive — In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition
  • CYP3A4
luciferin 6’benzyl ether (luciferin-be) luciferin ketoconazole
NPDI-ZTY8Qw Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Effects of mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine (the alkaloids of Mitragyna speciosa Korth) on 4-methylumbelliferone glucuronidation in rat and human liver microsomes and recombinant human uridine 5’- diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase isoforms Inhibition of UGT2B7 by buprenorphine In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition positive — In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition
  • UGT2B7
4-methylumbelliferone 4-methylumbelliferone glucuronide buprenorphine
NPDI-GETspg Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) The inhibitory effects of mitragynine on P-glycoprotein in vitro Induction of P-gp protein expression by 0.001 µM rifampicin In Vitro Transporter Induction positive — In Vitro Transporter Induction
  • P-gp (ABCB1)
rifampicin
NPDI-bX8XPA Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Effects of mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine (the alkaloids of Mitragyna speciosa Korth) on 4-methylumbelliferone glucuronidation in rat and human liver microsomes and recombinant human uridine 5’- diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase isoforms No inhibition of UGT2B7 by ketamine In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition negative — In Vitro Enzyme Negligible Inhibition
  • UGT2B7
4-methylumbelliferone 4-methylumbelliferone glucuronide ketamine
NPDI-gdI_mg Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) The inhibitory effects of mitragynine on P-glycoprotein in vitro Induction of P-gp protein expression by 0.1 µM rifampicin In Vitro Transporter Induction positive — In Vitro Transporter Induction
  • P-gp (ABCB1)
rifampicin
NPDI-o-4ZoA Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Inhibitory effect of mitragynine on human cytochrome P450 enzyme activities Enzyme kinetics of CYP2D6 In Vitro Enzyme Kinetics positive — In Vitro Detectable Kinetic Metabolism
  • CYP2D6
ethylene glycol ester of luciferin 6’methyl ether (luciferin me-ege) luciferin
NPDI-M8nR1A Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Inhibitory effect of mitragynine on human cytochrome P450 enzyme activities Enzyme kinetics of CYP3A4 In Vitro Enzyme Kinetics positive — In Vitro Detectable Kinetic Metabolism
  • CYP3A4
luciferin 6’benzyl ether (luciferin-be) luciferin
NPDI-Ue8YDg Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) The inhibitory effects of mitragynine on P-glycoprotein in vitro Permeability of mitragynine across Caco-2 monolayer cells In Vitro Transporter Kinetics negative — No In Vitro Transport Activity
  • P-gp (ABCB1)
mitragynine
NPDI-d0noGQ Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Inhibitory effect of mitragynine on human cytochrome P450 enzyme activities POS. CONTROL: Inhibition of CYP2D6 by quinidine In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition positive — In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition
  • CYP2D6
ethylene glycol ester of luciferin 6’methyl ether (luciferin me-ege) luciferin quinidine
NPDI-m-NOOw Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Inhibitory effect of mitragynine on human cytochrome P450 enzyme activities Enzyme kinetics of CYP2C9 In Vitro Enzyme Kinetics positive — In Vitro Detectable Kinetic Metabolism
  • CYP2C9
6’deoxyluciferin (luciferin h) luciferin
NPDI-TTv3Iw Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Exploration of cytochrome P450 inhibition mediated drug-drug interaction potential of kratom alkaloids Inhibition of Speciociliatine for CYP3A4/5 In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition positive — In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition
  • CYP3A4
  • CYP3A5
midazolam 1'-hydroxymidazolam speciociliatine
NPDI-4HfEdA Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Exploration of cytochrome P450 inhibition mediated drug-drug interaction potential of kratom alkaloids Inhibition of Paynantheine for CYP2C9 In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition positive — In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition
  • CYP2C9
diclofenac 4'-hydroxydiclofenac paynantheine
NPDI-U0t5zQ Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) The inhibitory effects of mitragynine on P-glycoprotein in vitro Induction of P-gp protein expression by 0.01 µM rifampicin In Vitro Transporter Induction positive — In Vitro Transporter Induction
  • P-gp (ABCB1)
rifampicin
NPDI-aNb3lw Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Exploration of cytochrome P450 inhibition mediated drug-drug interaction potential of kratom alkaloids Weak Inhibition of Paynantheine for CYP3A4/5 In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition negative — In Vitro Enzyme Negligible Inhibition
  • CYP3A4
  • CYP3A5
testosterone 6beta-hydroxytestosterone paynantheine
NPDI-WakYGw Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Exploration of cytochrome P450 inhibition mediated drug-drug interaction potential of kratom alkaloids Inhibition of Paynantheine for CYP3A4/5 In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition positive — In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition
  • CYP3A4
  • CYP3A5
midazolam 1'-hydroxymidazolam paynantheine
NPDI-_MFsyA Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Exploration of cytochrome P450 inhibition mediated drug-drug interaction potential of kratom alkaloids Weak Inhibition of Speciogynine for CYP1A2 In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition negative — In Vitro Enzyme Negligible Inhibition
  • CYP1A2
phenacetin acetaminophen speciogynine
NPDI-zKam8g Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Exploration of cytochrome P450 inhibition mediated drug-drug interaction potential of kratom alkaloids Weak Inhibition of Speciociliatine for CYP1A2 In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition negative — In Vitro Enzyme Negligible Inhibition
  • CYP1A2
phenacetin acetaminophen speciociliatine
NPDI-V_oQog Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Exploration of cytochrome P450 inhibition mediated drug-drug interaction potential of kratom alkaloids Weak Inhibition of Paynantheine for CYP1A2 In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition negative — In Vitro Enzyme Negligible Inhibition
  • CYP1A2
phenacetin acetaminophen paynantheine
NPDI-bXPXRQ Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Exploration of cytochrome P450 inhibition mediated drug-drug interaction potential of kratom alkaloids Inhibition of Corynantheidine for CYP2C9 In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition positive — In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition
  • CYP2C9
diclofenac 4'-hydroxydiclofenac corynantheidine
NPDI-eMZPbA Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Exploration of cytochrome P450 inhibition mediated drug-drug interaction potential of kratom alkaloids Inhibition of 7-hydroxymitragynine for CYP2C19 In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition positive — In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition
  • CYP2C19
mephenytoin, (s)- 4-hydroxymephenytoin, (s)- 7-hydroxymitragynine
NPDI-iASYyA Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Exploration of cytochrome P450 inhibition mediated drug-drug interaction potential of kratom alkaloids Weak Inhibition of 7-hydroxymitragynine for CYP3A4/5 In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition negative — In Vitro Enzyme Negligible Inhibition
  • CYP3A4
  • CYP3A5
testosterone 6beta-hydroxytestosterone 7-hydroxymitragynine
NPDI-olaGPQ Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Exploration of cytochrome P450 inhibition mediated drug-drug interaction potential of kratom alkaloids Weak Inhibition of 7-hydroxymitragynine for CYP3A4/5 In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition negative — In Vitro Enzyme Negligible Inhibition
  • CYP3A4
  • CYP3A5
midazolam 1'-hydroxymidazolam 7-hydroxymitragynine
NPDI-cxxGnA Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) The inhibitory effects of mitragynine on P-glycoprotein in vitro Control P-gp digoxin transport In Vitro Transporter Kinetics (Control experiment) positive — In Vitro Transport
  • P-gp (ABCB1)
digoxin
NPDI-ye4dPw Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) The inhibitory effects of mitragynine on P-glycoprotein in vitro Down regulation of P-gp mRNA expression by 1 µM quinidine In Vitro Transporter Induction positive — In Vitro Transporter Down Regulation
  • P-gp (ABCB1)
quinidine
NPDI-o56vpA Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Exploration of cytochrome P450 inhibition mediated drug-drug interaction potential of kratom alkaloids Weak Inhibition of Corynantheidine for CYP2C8 In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition negative — In Vitro Enzyme Negligible Inhibition
  • CYP2C8
amodiaquine n-desethylamodiaquine corynantheidine
NPDI-5LuVNQ Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Exploration of cytochrome P450 inhibition mediated drug-drug interaction potential of kratom alkaloids Control Positive Inhibition for CYP1A2 In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition (Control experiment) positive — In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition
  • CYP1A2
phenacetin acetaminophen alpha-naphthoflavone
NPDI-s8ImuA Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Exploration of cytochrome P450 inhibition mediated drug-drug interaction potential of kratom alkaloids Control Positive Inhibition for CYP2C8 In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition (Control experiment) positive — In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition
  • CYP2C8
amodiaquine n-desethylamodiaquine montelukast
NPDI-t32_Ig Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Exploration of cytochrome P450 inhibition mediated drug-drug interaction potential of kratom alkaloids Control Positive Inhibition for CYP2C9 In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition (Control experiment) positive — In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition
  • CYP2C9
diclofenac 4'-hydroxydiclofenac sulfaphenazole
NPDI-gxj_UA Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Exploration of cytochrome P450 inhibition mediated drug-drug interaction potential of kratom alkaloids Control Positive Inhibition for CYP2C19 In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition (Control experiment) positive — In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition
  • CYP2C19
mephenytoin, (s)- 4-hydroxymephenytoin, (s)- (s)-(+)-n-3-benzylnirvanol
NPDI-4AITQg Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Exploration of cytochrome P450 inhibition mediated drug-drug interaction potential of kratom alkaloids Control Positive Inhibition for CYP2D6 In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition (Control experiment) positive — In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition
  • CYP2D6
dextromethorphan dextrorphan quinidine
NPDI-kew9FQ Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Exploration of cytochrome P450 inhibition mediated drug-drug interaction potential of kratom alkaloids Control Positive Inhibition for CYP3A4/5 In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition (Control experiment) positive — In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition
  • CYP3A4
  • CYP3A5
midazolam 1'-hydroxymidazolam ketoconazole
NPDI-9xzv_Q Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Exploration of cytochrome P450 inhibition mediated drug-drug interaction potential of kratom alkaloids Control Positive Inhibition for CYP3A4/5 In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition (Control experiment) positive — In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition
  • CYP3A4
  • CYP3A5
testosterone 6beta-hydroxytestosterone ketoconazole
NPDI-8GmUTQ Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) The inhibitory effects of mitragynine on P-glycoprotein in vitro Induction of P-gp protein expression by 10 µM rifampicin In Vitro Transporter Induction positive — In Vitro Transporter Induction
  • P-gp (ABCB1)
rifampicin
NPDI-0hNq0Q Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Exploration of cytochrome P450 inhibition mediated drug-drug interaction potential of kratom alkaloids Weak Inhibition of Mitragynine for CYP2C9 In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition negative — In Vitro Enzyme Negligible Inhibition
  • CYP2C9
diclofenac 4'-hydroxydiclofenac mitragynine
NPDI-laH1lA Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Exploration of cytochrome P450 inhibition mediated drug-drug interaction potential of kratom alkaloids Weak Inhibition of Mitragynine for CYP1A2 In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition negative — In Vitro Enzyme Negligible Inhibition
  • CYP1A2
phenacetin acetaminophen mitragynine
NPDI-17YRkg Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Exploration of cytochrome P450 inhibition mediated drug-drug interaction potential of kratom alkaloids Inhibition of Mitragynine for CYP2D6 In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition positive — In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition
  • CYP2D6
dextromethorphan dextrorphan mitragynine
NPDI-Ua1CeQ Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Exploration of cytochrome P450 inhibition mediated drug-drug interaction potential of kratom alkaloids Inhibition of Mitragynine for CYP2C19 In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition positive — In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition
  • CYP2C19
mephenytoin, (s)- 4-hydroxymephenytoin, (s)- mitragynine
NPDI-c_gPeA Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Exploration of cytochrome P450 inhibition mediated drug-drug interaction potential of kratom alkaloids Inhibition of Mitragynine for CYP3A4/5 In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition positive — In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition
  • CYP3A4
  • CYP3A5
midazolam 1'-hydroxymidazolam mitragynine
NPDI-J2PdQQ Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Exploration of cytochrome P450 inhibition mediated drug-drug interaction potential of kratom alkaloids Inhibition of Mitragynine for CYP2C8 In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition positive — In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition
  • CYP2C8
amodiaquine n-desethylamodiaquine mitragynine
NPDI-BLzT_g Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Exploration of cytochrome P450 inhibition mediated drug-drug interaction potential of kratom alkaloids Weak Inhibition of Mitragynine for CYP3A4/5 In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition negative — In Vitro Enzyme Negligible Inhibition
  • CYP3A4
  • CYP3A5
testosterone 6beta-hydroxytestosterone mitragynine
NPDI-DLH-JQ Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Exploration of cytochrome P450 inhibition mediated drug-drug interaction potential of kratom alkaloids Weak Inhibition of 7-hydroxymitragynine for CYP2C9 In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition negative — In Vitro Enzyme Negligible Inhibition
  • CYP2C9
diclofenac 4'-hydroxydiclofenac 7-hydroxymitragynine
NPDI-WL-VKw Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) The inhibitory effects of mitragynine on P-glycoprotein in vitro Control inhibition of P-gp digoxin transport by quinidine In Vitro Transporter Inhibition (Control experiment) positive — In Vitro Transporter Inhibition
  • P-gp (ABCB1)
digoxin quinidine
NPDI-DEOq7g Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) The inhibitory effects of mitragynine on P-glycoprotein in vitro Down regulation of P-gp mRNA expression by 10 µM mitragynine In Vitro Transporter Induction positive — In Vitro Transporter Down Regulation
  • P-gp (ABCB1)
mitragynine
NPDI-Zvn2gg Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Exploration of cytochrome P450 inhibition mediated drug-drug interaction potential of kratom alkaloids Weak Inhibition of Speciociliatine for CYP2C9 In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition negative — In Vitro Enzyme Negligible Inhibition
  • CYP2C9
diclofenac 4'-hydroxydiclofenac speciociliatine
NPDI-P2Nw6g Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Exploration of cytochrome P450 inhibition mediated drug-drug interaction potential of kratom alkaloids Weak Inhibition of Speciogynine for CYP3A4/5 In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition negative — In Vitro Enzyme Negligible Inhibition
  • CYP3A4
  • CYP3A5
testosterone 6beta-hydroxytestosterone speciogynine
NPDI-JqmF7w Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Exploration of cytochrome P450 inhibition mediated drug-drug interaction potential of kratom alkaloids Inhibition of Speciociliatine for CYP2C8 In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition positive — In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition
  • CYP2C8
amodiaquine n-desethylamodiaquine speciociliatine
NPDI-ULP_qQ Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Exploration of cytochrome P450 inhibition mediated drug-drug interaction potential of kratom alkaloids Weak Inhibition of Speciociliatine for CYP2D6 In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition negative — In Vitro Enzyme Negligible Inhibition
  • CYP2D6
dextromethorphan dextrorphan speciociliatine
NPDI-K9DvIg Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Exploration of cytochrome P450 inhibition mediated drug-drug interaction potential of kratom alkaloids Inhibition of Paynantheine for CYP2D6 In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition positive — In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition
  • CYP2D6
dextromethorphan dextrorphan paynantheine
NPDI-wo-wRw Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Exploration of cytochrome P450 inhibition mediated drug-drug interaction potential of kratom alkaloids Inhibition of Paynantheine for CYP2C19 In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition positive — In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition
  • CYP2C19
mephenytoin, (s)- 4-hydroxymephenytoin, (s)- paynantheine
NPDI-1Cjyxg Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Exploration of cytochrome P450 inhibition mediated drug-drug interaction potential of kratom alkaloids Weak Inhibition of Cornantheidine for CYP1A2 In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition negative — In Vitro Enzyme Negligible Inhibition
  • CYP1A2
phenacetin acetaminophen corynantheidine
NPDI-aGXuxA Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Exploration of cytochrome P450 inhibition mediated drug-drug interaction potential of kratom alkaloids Weak Inhibition of Corynantheidine for CYP2C19 In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition negative — In Vitro Enzyme Negligible Inhibition
  • CYP2C19
mephenytoin, (s)- 4-hydroxymephenytoin, (s)- corynantheidine
NPDI-qWS53g Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Exploration of cytochrome P450 inhibition mediated drug-drug interaction potential of kratom alkaloids Inhibition of Corynantheidine for CYP2D6 In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition positive — In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition
  • CYP2D6
dextromethorphan dextrorphan corynantheidine
NPDI-1vxnrQ Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Exploration of cytochrome P450 inhibition mediated drug-drug interaction potential of kratom alkaloids Weak Inhibition of 7-hydroxymitragynine for CYP1A2 In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition negative — In Vitro Enzyme Negligible Inhibition
  • CYP1A2
phenacetin acetaminophen 7-hydroxymitragynine
NPDI-cimaKA Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Exploration of cytochrome P450 inhibition mediated drug-drug interaction potential of kratom alkaloids Weak Inhibition of 7-hydroxymitragynine for CYP2D6 In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition negative — In Vitro Enzyme Negligible Inhibition
  • CYP2D6
dextromethorphan dextrorphan 7-hydroxymitragynine
NPDI-U-ajPw Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Exploration of cytochrome P450 inhibition mediated drug-drug interaction potential of kratom alkaloids Weak Inhibition of 7-hydroxymitragynine for CYP2C8 In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition negative — In Vitro Enzyme Negligible Inhibition
  • CYP2C8
amodiaquine n-desethylamodiaquine 7-hydroxymitragynine
NPDI-7PU97Q Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Exploration of cytochrome P450 inhibition mediated drug-drug interaction potential of kratom alkaloids Inhibition of Corynantheidine for CYP3A4/5 In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition positive — In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition
  • CYP3A4
  • CYP3A5
midazolam 1'-hydroxymidazolam corynantheidine
NPDI-nWIYpA Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) The inhibitory effects of mitragynine on P-glycoprotein in vitro Down regulation of P-gp mRNA expression by 1 µM mitragynine In Vitro Transporter Induction positive — In Vitro Transporter Down Regulation
  • P-gp (ABCB1)
mitragynine
NPDI-B_7tOA Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Exploration of cytochrome P450 inhibition mediated drug-drug interaction potential of kratom alkaloids Weak Inhibition of Speciogynine for CYP2C8 In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition negative — In Vitro Enzyme Negligible Inhibition
  • CYP2C8
amodiaquine n-desethylamodiaquine speciogynine
NPDI-Oq9KmA Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Exploration of cytochrome P450 inhibition mediated drug-drug interaction potential of kratom alkaloids Inhibition of Speciogynine for CYP2D6 In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition positive — In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition
  • CYP2D6
dextromethorphan dextrorphan speciogynine
NPDI-WIpfxQ Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Exploration of cytochrome P450 inhibition mediated drug-drug interaction potential of kratom alkaloids Inhibition of Speicogynine for CYP2C19 In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition positive — In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition
  • CYP2C19
mephenytoin, (s)- 4-hydroxymephenytoin, (s)- speciogynine
NPDI-XQCOGw Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Exploration of cytochrome P450 inhibition mediated drug-drug interaction potential of kratom alkaloids Inhibition of Speciociliatine for CYP2C19 In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition positive — In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition
  • CYP2C19
mephenytoin, (s)- 4-hydroxymephenytoin, (s)- speciociliatine
NPDI-sN1pZA Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Exploration of cytochrome P450 inhibition mediated drug-drug interaction potential of kratom alkaloids Weak Inhibition of Speciogynine for CYP2C9 In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition negative — In Vitro Enzyme Negligible Inhibition
  • CYP2C9
diclofenac 4'-hydroxydiclofenac speciogynine
NPDI-vs2diA Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) P-glycoprotein interactions of novel psychoactive substances – Stimulation of ATP consumption and transport across Caco-2 monolayers R123 Transport Substrate In Vitro Transporter Kinetics positive — In Vitro Transport
  • P-gp (ABCB1)
rhodamine 123
NPDI-4k7d3A Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) The inhibitory effects of mitragynine on P-glycoprotein in vitro Induction of P-gp protein expression by 1 µM rifampicin In Vitro Transporter Induction positive — In Vitro Transporter Induction
  • P-gp (ABCB1)
rifampicin
NPDI-38uQKg Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Metabolite profiling and identification of enzymes responsible for the metabolism of mitragynine, the major alkaloid of Mitragyna speciosa (kratom) Mitragynine metabolism and metabolite formation In Vitro Enzyme Screen positive — In Vitro Detectable Metabolism
  • CYP3A4
mitragynine 7-hydroxymitragynine
NPDI-ypADxQ Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Inhibitory effect of mitragynine on human cytochrome P450 enzyme activities No inhibition of CYP3A4 by mitragynine In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition negative — In Vitro Enzyme Negligible Inhibition
  • CYP3A4
luciferin 6’benzyl ether (luciferin-be) luciferin mitragynine
NPDI-3C6gmg Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Effects of mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine (the alkaloids of Mitragyna speciosa Korth) on 4-methylumbelliferone glucuronidation in rat and human liver microsomes and recombinant human uridine 5’- diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase isoforms Negligible inhibition of UGT2B7 by 7-hydroxymitragynine In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition negative — In Vitro Enzyme Negligible Inhibition
  • UGT2B7
4-methylumbelliferone 4-methylumbelliferone glucuronide 7-hydroxymitragynine
NPDI-3eovVg Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Effects of mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine (the alkaloids of Mitragyna speciosa Korth) on 4-methylumbelliferone glucuronidation in rat and human liver microsomes and recombinant human uridine 5’- diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase isoforms Negligible inhibition of UGT1A1 by buprenorphine In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition negative — In Vitro Enzyme Negligible Inhibition
  • UGT1A1
4-methylumbelliferone 4-methylumbelliferone glucuronide buprenorphine
NPDI-NZQ3aw Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Effects of mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine (the alkaloids of Mitragyna speciosa Korth) on 4-methylumbelliferone glucuronidation in rat and human liver microsomes and recombinant human uridine 5’- diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase isoforms Negligible inhibition of UGT2B7 by diclofenac In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition negative — In Vitro Enzyme Negligible Inhibition
  • UGT2B7
4-methylumbelliferone 4-methylumbelliferone glucuronide diclofenac
NPDI-Q5Hs5A Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Effects of mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine (the alkaloids of Mitragyna speciosa Korth) on 4-methylumbelliferone glucuronidation in rat and human liver microsomes and recombinant human uridine 5’- diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase isoforms No inhibition of UGT in human liver microsome activity by 7-hydroxymitragynine In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition negative — In Vitro Enzyme Negligible Inhibition
  • UGT
4-methylumbelliferone 4-methylumbelliferone glucuronide 7-hydroxymitragynine
NPDI-Ve-SYA Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Effects of mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine (the alkaloids of Mitragyna speciosa Korth) on 4-methylumbelliferone glucuronidation in rat and human liver microsomes and recombinant human uridine 5’- diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase isoforms No inhibition of UGT1A1 by ketamine In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition negative — In Vitro Enzyme Negligible Inhibition
  • UGT1A1
4-methylumbelliferone 4-methylumbelliferone glucuronide ketamine
ID Subject of Study Name
NPDI-9C7QHg Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Effects of mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine (the alkaloids of Mitragyna speciosa Korth) on 4-methylumbelliferone glucuronidation in rat and human liver microsomes and recombinant human uridine 5’- diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase isoforms
NPDI-XtvOZQ Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Inhibitory effect of mitragynine on human cytochrome P450 enzyme activities
NPDI-JHPnhA Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) The inhibitory effects of mitragynine on P-glycoprotein in vitro
NPDI-dIgOyA Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Metabolite profiling and identification of enzymes responsible for the metabolism of mitragynine, the major alkaloid of Mitragyna speciosa (kratom)
NPDI-eReNjw Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Exploration of cytochrome P450 inhibition mediated drug-drug interaction potential of kratom alkaloids
NPDI-FfN_4A Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Evaluation of the Effects of Mitragyna speciosa Alkaloid Extract on Cytochrome P450 Enzymes Using a High Throughput Assay
NPDI-4xNSSg Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Evaluation of In Vitro Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion (ADME) Properties of Mitragynine, 7-Hydroxymitragynine, and Mitraphylline
NPDI-PSB8Vg Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Evaluation of selected Malaysian medicinal plants on phase I drug metabolizing enzymes, CYP2C9, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 activities in vitro
NPDI-Yknaag Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) P-glycoprotein interactions of novel psychoactive substances – Stimulation of ATP consumption and transport across Caco-2 monolayers
NPDI-6PgT2w Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Kratom Metabolomics
NPDI-vQCHYg Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Characterization of Kratom material