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ID Subject of Study Study Name Name Type Overall Effect Enzymes Transporters Object Object Metabolite Precipitant
NPDI-7z5LQg Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) Cytochrome P450 inhibition by licorice species Glycyrrhiza glabra L. and fourteen licorice constituents Negligible inhibition of CYP3A4 by G. glabra Licorice extract In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition negative — In Vitro Enzyme Negligible Inhibition
  • CYP3A4
midazolam 1'-hydroxymidazolam ethanolic extract of licorice g. glabra
NPDI-aX49Ng Licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis) Cytochrome P450 inhibition by licorice species Glycyrrhiza uralensis and fourteen licorice constituents Negligible inhibition of CYP3A4 by G. uralensis Licorice extract In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition negative — In Vitro Enzyme Negligible Inhibition
  • CYP3A4
midazolam 1'-hydroxymidazolam ethanolic extract of licorice g. uralensis
NPDI-pHgnHQ Licorice (Glycyrrhiza inflata) Cytochrome P450 inhibition by licorice species Glycyrrhiza inflata and fourteen licorice constituents Inhibition of CYP3A4 by G. inflata Licorice extract In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition positive — In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition
  • CYP3A4
midazolam 1'-hydroxymidazolam ethanolic extract of licorice g. inflata
NPDI-Cuu5WA Green Tea (Camellia sinensis) Inhibition by green tea catechins of metabolic activation of procarcinogens by human cytochrome P450 In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition positive — In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition
  • CYP3A4
midazolam 1'-hydroxymidazolam epigallocatechin gallate
NPDI-FMvj7w Green Tea (Camellia sinensis) Effects of green tea catechins on cytochrome P450 2B6, 2C8, 2C19, 2D6 and 3A activities in human liver and intestinal microsomes Inhibition of CYP3A by (-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate in HIM (IC50 Determination) In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition positive — In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition
  • CYP3A4
midazolam 1'-hydroxymidazolam (-)-epigallocatechin gallate
NPDI-LZlNyQ Green Tea (Camellia sinensis) Effects of green tea catechins on cytochrome P450 2B6, 2C8, 2C19, 2D6 and 3A activities in human liver and intestinal microsomes Inhibition of CYP3A by (-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate in HLM (Ki Determination) In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition positive — In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition
  • CYP3A4
midazolam 1'-hydroxymidazolam (-)-epigallocatechin gallate
NPDI-AIlkaw Green Tea (Camellia sinensis) Effects of green tea catechins on cytochrome P450 2B6, 2C8, 2C19, 2D6 and 3A activities in human liver and intestinal microsomes Inhibition of CYP3A by (-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate in HIM (Ki Determination) In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition positive — In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition
  • CYP3A4
midazolam 1'-hydroxymidazolam (-)-epigallocatechin gallate
NPDI-6x_uKQ Green Tea (Camellia sinensis) Effects of green tea catechins on cytochrome P450 2B6, 2C8, 2C19, 2D6 and 3A activities in human liver and intestinal microsomes Inhibition of CYP3A by (-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate in HLM (IC50 Determination) In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition positive — In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition
  • CYP3A4
midazolam 1'-hydroxymidazolam (-)-epigallocatechin gallate
NPDI-JGDRVA Green Tea (Camellia sinensis) Inhibition by green tea catechins of metabolic activation of procarcinogens by human cytochrome P450 Percent inhibition of CYP3A4 by epicatechin gallate In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition positive — In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition
  • CYP3A4
midazolam 1'-hydroxymidazolam epicatechin gallate
NPDI-Bi2fGw Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis) In vivo effects of goldenseal, kava kava, black cohosh, and valerian on human cytochrome P450 1A2, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A4 phenotypes CYP3A4 Experiment In Vivo Interaction positive — PK Interaction – Increased systemic exposure
  • CYP3A4
midazolam goldenseal root extract
NPDI-Aw3yIw Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis) Supplementation With Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis), but not Kava Kava (Piper methysticum), Inhibits Human CYP3A Activity In Vivo CYP3A4 Experiment - MDZ probe In Vivo Interaction positive — PK Interaction – Increased systemic exposure
  • CYP3A4
midazolam goldenseal root extract
NPDI-j7Vnlw Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis) Repeated administration of berberine inhibits cytochromes P450 in humans CYP3A4 Experiment In Vivo Interaction positive — PK Interaction – Increased systemic exposure
  • CYP3A4
midazolam berberine
NPDI-KGE4lw Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis) An ex vivo approach to botanical-drug interactions: A proof of concept study 3A4/5 Inhibition by Berberine (Plasma) In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition positive — In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition
  • CYP3A
midazolam 1'-hydroxymidazolam berberine
NPDI-gAs6gw Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis) An ex vivo approach to botanical-drug interactions: A proof of concept study 3A4/5 Inhibition by Hydrastine (Plasma) In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition positive — In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition
  • CYP3A
midazolam 1'-hydroxymidazolam hydrastine
NPDI-hYXlNQ Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis) An ex vivo approach to botanical-drug interactions: A proof of concept study 3A4/5 Inhibition by Goldenseal In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition positive — In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition
  • CYP3A
midazolam 1'-hydroxymidazolam goldenseal root extract
NPDI-PaRJNQ Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis) An ex vivo approach to botanical-drug interactions: A proof of concept study 3A4/5 Inhibition by Berberine (PB) In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition positive — In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition
  • CYP3A
midazolam 1'-hydroxymidazolam berberine
NPDI-6AJ-fg Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis) An ex vivo approach to botanical-drug interactions: A proof of concept study 3A4/5 Inhibition by Hydrastine (PB) In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition positive — In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition
  • CYP3A
midazolam 1'-hydroxymidazolam hydrastine
NPDI-_UID1w Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis) An in vitro Evaluation of Cytochrome P450 Inhibition and P-Glycoprotein Interaction with Goldenseal, Ginkgo biloba, Grape Seed, Milk Thistle, and Ginseng Extracts and Their Constituents 3A4 Inhibition by Hydrastine (MDZ) In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition positive — In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition
  • CYP3A4
midazolam 1'-hydroxymidazolam hydrastine
NPDI-cnkDpg Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis) An in vitro Evaluation of Cytochrome P450 Inhibition and P-Glycoprotein Interaction with Goldenseal, Ginkgo biloba, Grape Seed, Milk Thistle, and Ginseng Extracts and Their Constituents 3A4 Inhibition by Ethanolic GS Extract (MDZ) In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition positive — In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition
  • CYP3A4
midazolam 1'-hydroxymidazolam ethanolic goldenseal extract
NPDI-Z0x9xQ Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis) An in vitro Evaluation of Cytochrome P450 Inhibition and P-Glycoprotein Interaction with Goldenseal, Ginkgo biloba, Grape Seed, Milk Thistle, and Ginseng Extracts and Their Constituents 3A4 Inhibition by Aq GS Extract (MDZ) In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition positive — In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition
  • CYP3A4
midazolam 1'-hydroxymidazolam aqueous goldenseal extract
NPDI-d2rDLg Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) Drug Approval Package: Epidiolex (Cannabidiol) CBD Effect on Midazolam In Vivo Interaction negative — No Effect (based on bioequivalence limits)
midazolam cannabidiol
NPDI-CAfs7A licochalcone a Inhibition of CYP enzymes by licochalcone a Inhibition of CYP3A4 by Licochalcone A In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition positive — In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition
  • CYP3A4
midazolam 1'-hydroxymidazolam licochalcone a
NPDI-olaGPQ Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Exploration of cytochrome P450 inhibition mediated drug-drug interaction potential of kratom alkaloids Weak Inhibition of 7-hydroxymitragynine for CYP3A4/5 In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition negative — In Vitro Enzyme Negligible Inhibition
  • CYP3A4
  • CYP3A5
midazolam 1'-hydroxymidazolam 7-hydroxymitragynine
NPDI-kew9FQ Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Exploration of cytochrome P450 inhibition mediated drug-drug interaction potential of kratom alkaloids Control Positive Inhibition for CYP3A4/5 In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition (Control experiment) positive — In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition
  • CYP3A4
  • CYP3A5
midazolam 1'-hydroxymidazolam ketoconazole
NPDI-c_gPeA Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Exploration of cytochrome P450 inhibition mediated drug-drug interaction potential of kratom alkaloids Inhibition of Mitragynine for CYP3A4/5 In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition positive — In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition
  • CYP3A4
  • CYP3A5
midazolam 1'-hydroxymidazolam mitragynine
NPDI-QQeDSQ Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Exploration of cytochrome P450 inhibition mediated drug-drug interaction potential of kratom alkaloids Inhibition of Speciogynine for CYP3A4/5 In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition positive — In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition
  • CYP3A4
  • CYP3A5
midazolam 1'-hydroxymidazolam speciogynine
NPDI-TTv3Iw Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Exploration of cytochrome P450 inhibition mediated drug-drug interaction potential of kratom alkaloids Inhibition of Speciociliatine for CYP3A4/5 In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition positive — In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition
  • CYP3A4
  • CYP3A5
midazolam 1'-hydroxymidazolam speciociliatine
NPDI-WakYGw Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Exploration of cytochrome P450 inhibition mediated drug-drug interaction potential of kratom alkaloids Inhibition of Paynantheine for CYP3A4/5 In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition positive — In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition
  • CYP3A4
  • CYP3A5
midazolam 1'-hydroxymidazolam paynantheine
NPDI-7PU97Q Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Exploration of cytochrome P450 inhibition mediated drug-drug interaction potential of kratom alkaloids Inhibition of Corynantheidine for CYP3A4/5 In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition positive — In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition
  • CYP3A4
  • CYP3A5
midazolam 1'-hydroxymidazolam corynantheidine
ID Subject of Study Name
NPDI-8SkM4A Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) Cytochrome P450 inhibition by licorice species Glycyrrhiza glabra L. and fourteen licorice constituents
NPDI-Lm3PvA Licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis) Cytochrome P450 inhibition by licorice species Glycyrrhiza uralensis and fourteen licorice constituents
NPDI-UmIRAQ Licorice (Glycyrrhiza inflata) Cytochrome P450 inhibition by licorice species Glycyrrhiza inflata and fourteen licorice constituents
NPDI-dCfz1g Green Tea (Camellia sinensis) Inhibition by green tea catechins of metabolic activation of procarcinogens by human cytochrome P450
NPDI-aujB5A Green Tea (Camellia sinensis) Effects of green tea catechins on cytochrome P450 2B6, 2C8, 2C19, 2D6 and 3A activities in human liver and intestinal microsomes
NPDI-ftEv0g Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis) In vivo effects of goldenseal, kava kava, black cohosh, and valerian on human cytochrome P450 1A2, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A4 phenotypes
NPDI-twVQgQ Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis) Supplementation With Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis), but not Kava Kava (Piper methysticum), Inhibits Human CYP3A Activity In Vivo
NPDI-5XFThQ Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis) Repeated administration of berberine inhibits cytochromes P450 in humans
NPDI-luckpg Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis) An ex vivo approach to botanical-drug interactions: A proof of concept study
NPDI-EiXGKA Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis) An in vitro Evaluation of Cytochrome P450 Inhibition and P-Glycoprotein Interaction with Goldenseal, Ginkgo biloba, Grape Seed, Milk Thistle, and Ginseng Extracts and Their Constituents
NPDI-SiYA_A Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) Drug Approval Package: Epidiolex (Cannabidiol)
NPDI-oEAKVw licochalcone a Inhibition of CYP enzymes by licochalcone a
NPDI-eReNjw Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Exploration of cytochrome P450 inhibition mediated drug-drug interaction potential of kratom alkaloids

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